疾病的「超級傳播者」加速伊波拉病毒的傳染
Disease 'Superspreaders' Fueled the Ebola Epidemic: Two Thirds of Cases Traceable to Highly Infection Minority, Study Claims

內容
Disease 'superspreaders' fueled the spread of the devastating Ebola epidemic in 2014, a new study claims. The West African Ebola epidemic was the largest in history and killed more than 11,300 people, with many of the cases involving people infected while caring for a sick person or burying a body. Researchers found there was just a small number of so-called 'superspreaders' in West Africa - highly infectious people who infect many others. However, a new analysis has found at least two thirds of the victims who contracted the virus can be traced back to this small group. 'We now see the role of superspreaders as larger than initially suspected,' said co-author Benjamin Dalziel, an assistant professor of population biology in the College of Science at Oregon State University. 'It was the cases you didn't see that really drove the epidemic, particularly people who died at home, without making it to a care center.' The study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences shows such 'superspreaders' can be extremely dangerous when it comes to infectious disease outbreaks. At the time, researchers counted cases according to those seen in medical centers, but they later realized these were a small fraction of the total. 'There wasn't a lot of transmission once people reached hospitals and care centers,' said Dalziel. 'In our analysis we were able to see a web of transmission that would often track back to a community-based superspreader.' In fact, 61 percent of those infected with the disease caught it from people accounting for just three percent of those who got sick, the researchers said. The study included researchers from Princeton University, Oregon State University, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, the Imperial College London, and the US National Institutes of Health. If superspreading had been completely under control about two-thirds of Ebola cases could have been avoided, the report said. Superspreaders have also played a role in the epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome, or SARS, in 2003 and Middle East respiratory syndrome in 2012.
發佈時間
2017/02/14
資料來源
新聞出處
Daily Mail
摘譯者